Contact Us

  • Phone:
    (214) 305-5616
  • Email: 
  • Mailing Address: P. O. Box 248 | Aubrey, TX 76227



The Five Point Palm Exploding Heart Technique

Posted by Charles "Chuck" Chadwick, Jr. on

Do I have your attention? This article should really be entitled “The dangers of learning unapproved defensive tactics”. Remember when you were in level 3 and level 4 defensive tactics class and you were taught the state curriculum. The tactics you were taught had three elements. Tactical, Medical and Legal.


You also learned that there are Control tactics and Survival (deadly force) tactics. The appropriate level of force must be used in a physical contact situation. If you use a Survival (deadly force) tactic in a Control situation you most likely will be charged with excessive force and GO TO JAIL and be sued civilly for lots of money going to the victim. We will not be able to help you make amends for your very bad judgement if you use techniques you were not taught.


So, before you go to the Kung Fu master and learn all sorts of cool moves consider why we taught you what we taught you. You might be better off practicing what we teach.


The following are excerpts from the PPCT student manual, which is the basis of the universally taught defensive tactics we teach.




Tactical Research

Tactical research provides a foundation for recognizing the needs of officers to select proper control techniques under a variety of situations. Tactical research has allowed the development of a subject control system based upon controlling the most common types of resistance. This task-oriented approach enhances training from several perspectives. First, developing a system based upon the most common types of resistance immediately answers an officer's most pressing needs in the field, Secondly, such a system maximizes the learning potential of training and thus enhances the quality of training time and related budget outlays. Finally, this method develops a system based upon the officer's actual needs instead of a series of self-defense techniques that may be difficult to defend in court. This approach is supported by documented studies identifying resistance profiles in a variety of field settings.


PPCT's tactical research also consists of examining performance under stress. PPCT's survival learning research has proven the scientific validity of common sense traditions such as "Keep it Simple" and "Less is Best." Research in the field of motor skill performance shows that increased heart rates resulting from anxiety/stress will inhibit one's ability to perform fine and complex motor skills. Other studies show that optimum arousal for behavior decreases when you increase task difficulty or complexity. The research convincingly demonstrates that high or moderate levels of stress deteriorate fine muscular control and decision making. Gross motor skills have minimal fine motor control, very little complexity, and are not affected by stress.


This research is an important foundation for designing survival and subject control training systems. When an officer faces a threatening situation, both stress and heart rate levels increase. Whenever possible, all of the PPCT training systems utilize gross motor skills, which are the least affected by high stress.


The second element of the design methodology is based upon minimizing the number of skills within each system. Research supporting this principle can be found in Hick's Law, a motor learning and reaction time principle. Hick's Law states that reaction time increases approximately 150 milliseconds when the response option increases from one to two. To put this in perspective, an officer's reaction time increases proportionally when the number of skills in a system increase, because more time is required to process, select and organize the appropriate response to a threat. With milliseconds being the difference between life and death, a system consisting of a small number of techniques i creases an officer's chance of survival.


The results of these studies provide a scientific basis requiring all use of force training to be based upon simplicity, both in techniques election and the number of skills within a system. PPCT has adopted this research to advance officer safety and to defend officers and agencies in court.


Legal Research

The true effectiveness of any system is the defensibility of the system/technique in a court of law. PPCT has very carefully followed the major Federal and Supreme Court decisions in the development of different training systems. Therefore, an integral component of PPCT training involves the use of reasonable force, which is based upon four use of force justifications:


  1. Was there a need for the application of force?
  2. Was the relationship between the resistance and the level of force proportional, based upon the One-Plus-One Theory?
  3. Was the extent of subject's injury proportional to the subject's level of resistance or threat to the officer or another?
  4. Whether the force was applied in good faith, based upon the perceptions of a reasonably trained officer and the objectively reasonable facts the officer had at the time of the incident.


These standards have their basis in Federal and Supreme Court decisions and have provided direction for the PPCT Resistance Control Continuum. The PPCT Resistance Control Continuum is a graphic model that divides levels of subject resistance and levels of control. The model is used to train officers in the appropriate responses to specific levels of resistance and as a document to assist in report writing and court room testimony.


The legal research has also assisted PPCT in developing a model Use of Force Policy and a Use of Force Report Form. These documents provide agencies with a complete Use of Force system, where training, policy and report writing coincide and support each other.


Medical Research

The most unique aspect of PPCT training is the extensive medical research supporting its techniques. To date, there have been six medical studies examining the safety and medical implications of the PPCT subject control systems. The research has been conducted by vascular surgeons, dental surgeons, neurosurgeons, and orthopedic surgeons, with additional input from chiropractors. The studies have been conducted throughout the United States, in Australia and in Hong Kong. This research has distinguished the quality and validity of PPCT training and has been used numerous times to defend officers and their agencies in court.




Back to Top