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A personal recent exposure to what could have been a “Crime of Persuasion” or in other terms a “Con Job” caused me to propose a “What If” scenario that could happen in any group of believers. Affinity Fraud runs particularly rampant in churches because our generosity can be taken advantage of.
A quote from the FBI about Affinity Fraud: Financial fraudsters are known to be an unscrupulous lot, but it is particularly loathsome when these white-collar criminals exploit trusting members of their own church or social circle to line their pockets.
Also called a con′ job`n. Informal. - an act or instance of duping, swindling, or persuading by deception.
Typical church confidence scheme example.
Join a small group at a small church. Paint a picture of yourself being destitute in some way and ask for a love offering on the spot. Proper procedure would be to funnel all request for “Benevolence” through the Cares ministry, etc.
We once had a case where a “Con Couple” would go around to the various church small groups and take up a love offering for an overseas ministry that they said the church was sponsoring. They would say “They just needed $10,000 more, could you spare $500?”
COVID makes opportunities grow. Think of the advantage they might have through a “Zoom” environment. You don’t have to even meet the people.
There is also “Phishing”. Phishing is a type of social engineering attack often used to steal user data, including login credentials and credit card numbers. It occurs when an attacker, masquerading as a trusted entity, dupes a victim into opening an email, instant message, or text message.
Some churches have been the center for vast multi-level marketing schemes.
Here is the FBI’s page https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/beware-of-affinity-fraud which features The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah.
Here is a part of an article, from the SEC, that explains a bit more on Affinity Fraud.
Affinity fraud refers to investment scams that prey upon members of identifiable groups, such as religious or ethnic communities, the elderly, or professional groups. The fraudsters who promote affinity scams frequently are - or pretend to be - members of the group. They often enlist respected community or religious leaders from within the group to spread the word about the scheme, by convincing those people that a fraudulent investment is legitimate and worthwhile. Many times, those leaders become unwitting victims of the fraudster's ruse.
These scams exploit the trust and friendship that exist in groups of people who have something in common. Because of the tight-knit structure of many groups, it can be difficult for regulators or law enforcement officials to detect an affinity scam. Victims often fail to notify authorities or pursue their legal remedies, and instead try to work things out within the group. This is particularly true where the fraudsters have used respected community or religious leaders to convince others to join the investment.
Many affinity scams involve "Ponzi" or pyramid schemes, where new investor money is used to make payments to earlier investors to give the false illusion that the investment is successful. This ploy is used to trick new investors to invest in the scheme and to lull existing investors into believing their investments are safe and secure. In reality, the fraudster almost always steals investor money for personal use. Both types of schemes depend on an unending supply of new investors - when the inevitable occurs, and the supply of investors dries up, the whole scheme collapses, and investors discover that most or all of their money is gone.
Investing always involves some degree of risk. You can minimize your risk of investing unwisely by asking questions and getting the facts about any investment before you buy. To avoid affinity and other scams, you should:
The SEC complaint alleges that the defendants operated a Ponzi scheme and used investor funds to pay lavish personal expenses. The defendants raised over $16 million from more than 190 investors nationwide. Many of the victims were elderly members of Jehovah’s Witnesses congregations and were promised returns of up to 75 percent.
Defendants perpetrated an affinity fraud, raising at least $16.5 million from mostly African-Americans and Christians by falsely representing they would receive returns through investments in, among other things, real estate, small businesses, and "markets of the world."
This nationwide scheme primarily targeted African-American churches and raised at least $3 million from over 1000 investing churches located throughout the United States. Believing they would receive large sums of money from the investments, many of the church victims committed to building projects, acquired new debt, spent building funds, and contracted with builders.
The victims of this fraud were mainly African-American Baptists, many of whom were elderly and disabled, as well as a number of Baptist churches and religious organizations located in a number of states. The promoter (Randolph, who was a minister himself and who is currently in jail) promised returns ranging between 7 and 30%, but in reality, was operating a Ponzi scheme. In addition to a jail sentence, Randolph was ordered to pay $1 million in the SEC's civil action.